As noted in Chapter 3, the share of GNP that rich countries contribute to official development assistance is in decline, in some states for over 20 years. In spite of the increased generosity of some states, since 1992 net aid disbursements from OECD states dropped, falling from over $62 billion to less than $50 billion in 1997. Not surprisingly, this decline has spawned interest in what caused it and what will happen in the future. This chapter addresses these questions. Drawing on the earlier contributions to the volume, it explores conditions influencing future bilateral and multilateral aid, with principal attention to large donor states, since their outlooks shape their own as well as multilateral flows.