Not all capital cities are alike. Some owe that role solely to the fact of being the seat of government; at least one (Amsterdam) is a capital though it is not the seat of government. Capitals in federal systems may have less well developed governmental functions than those in centralized systems. Though most seats of government attract to themselves other national functions (commerce, fi nance, the media, higher education), not all do so in equal degree. We can usefully distinguish the following cases:

1. Multi-Function Capitals: combining all or most of the highest national-level functions (London, Paris, Madrid, Stockholm, Moscow, Tokyo).