Chandigarh, one of the fi rst state capitals built in independent India, is also the fi rst Modernist capital to follow the CIAM model. The need for it was created by the division of the Province of Punjab between India and Pakistan, at their separation in 1947, and the allocation of its magnifi cent capital, Lahore, to Pakistan (see fi gure 16.1). Although designed as the state capital of Indian Punjab, symbolically Chandigarh acquired the attention of the national leaders from the beginning and several worldrenowned planners and designers were involved in the project.