In 2012, two statutes came into force that modify the processes of refugee determination in Canada, reduce the benefits enjoyed by those seeking protection and impose additional hardships on some individuals found to be refugees. Neither the Balanced Refugee Reform Act, 1 nor the Protecting Canada’s Immigration System Act 2 purports to introduce radical change. One can infer from their titles alone that their authors and sponsors presented them as attempts to shore up rather than to redefine the values underlying the immigration and refugee regime.