Globalization has been one of the dominant paradigms of maritime shipping and port terminal development since the mid-twentieth century. The emergence of a global economy has focused on three poles – North America, Western Europe and Japan – where most of the commercial, ﬁnancial and distribution functions take place. Substantial changes have concomitantly occurred in the manufacturing sector, with production capabilities spread over vast territories (Rodrigue 2000), resulting in extensive shifts in the geography of freight distribution. Ports, from gateways to feeders, have been inﬂuenced by increased competitive pressures, by their integration with inland freight distribution systems, and by technical and technological changes in maritime and land transportation alike (Rodrigue et al. 1997). Global change has frequently inﬂicted severe local pains (McCalla 1999).