A critical element in the model is the specification of the relationship between ideological labels and self-identifications. The lack of bipolar meaning assumes a special significance when considered in conjunction with individual self-identifications. Turning to the content of meaning, both cognitive factors and political symbols can influence attitudes towards liberals and conservatives, and thus ideological self-identifications. Ideological self-identification was measured in terms of a standard CPS question which focuses on political liberal/conservative identification. Ideological self-identifications, therefore, may serve an important function for the public by providing a symbolic framework which simplifies societal conflicts. Specifically, ideological identifications are found to have largely symbolic meanings, a fact that helps to explain some of the findings concerning the relationship of the liberal/conservative continuum to political perception and behavior. Along similar lines, John D. Holm and John P. Robinson have compared the impact of partisan and ideological identifications on voting behavior.