Problems related to sexual orientation and gender identity are often raised in relation to refugee determination proceedings. As a result, many advocates, refugee lawyers and even refugees themselves have consistently called on refugee agencies and authorities to mandate continuing professional training for personnel involved in the determination of the refugee status of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) claimants, as well as in the delivery of services to LGBT asylum seekers and refugees. While calls for training have at times outlined specifi c competencies required for refugee personnel and adjudicators, for the most part, proponents fail to specify the type of professional development that might foster better decision making in LGBT refugee cases.