Parallel to Europe expanding its borders and working toward a more fl exible perception of citizenship within these boundaries, European nationstates are tightening their understanding of national membership for non-Europeans. In this chapter we argue that such developments are symptomatic for nation-states stuck between modern normative frameworks and postmodern realities. Paradoxical tensions evolve out of this situation and create a narrowing space between political commitment to cosmopolitanism and political complicity with new exclusionary regimes.