An important task of education in many Western democracies, including the supra-national European Union, is to provide for the formation of active participatory citizens. This task is particularly urgent in the present social and educational situation of plurality and globalisation. The emphasis on promoting participatory citizenry through education in these democracies can be viewed in light of general political concerns about the future of democracy. These concerns are partly underpinned by political science and sociological research suggesting a decline, particularly among adolescents, in political participation, knowledge and interest at local, national and global levels in various parts of the world (Inglehart 1997; Putnam 2000; Schulz, Ainley and van de Gaer 2010c; Yates and Youniss 1998). Although the claims raised by this research are inconsistent, a contemporary political targeting of these issues in the field of education, coupled with the ongoing revival of the field of political socialisation (cf. Amnå et al. 2009), indicates a political unease about the current state of democracy and participatory citizenship.