Democracy depends on two fundamental underpinnings: people’s participation in various civic and political contexts and their acceptance of diverse opinions and positions other people assume through participation (Sullivan and Transue 1999). Being the most visible and affirmative face of citizenship, a polysemic concept frequently invoked as consensual but clearly far from that status (e.g. Araújo 2007; Beiner 1995; Benhabib 1999; Ferreira 2006; Haste 2004; Menezes 2005), participation implies the expression of active citizenship rights. Even if these are diversely conceived by democratic traditions, from minimalist to maximalist versions (Eisenstadt 2000; see also Chapter 9, this volume, for a similar discussion), participation is relevant both for personal and societal reasons, as it increments interpersonal trust, political tolerance and empowerment (e.g. Ferreira 2006; Morgan and Streb 2001; Sullivan and Transue 1999) and fosters civic culture, social capital and pluralism (e.g. Almond and Verba 1963; Arendt 2001; Habermas 1999; Putnam 2000). Additionally, civic and political participation in adolescence is a good predictor of political engagement and interest in adulthood (e.g. Azevedo and Menezes 2008; Oesterle, Johnson and Mortimer 2004).