This chapter presents a broad overview of the scenario of human resource management (HRM) in India. It is structured along the framework discussed in chapter 1 of this volume. To provide the required context, this section presents some relevant demographic details of the Indian economy and society. India is a republic in South Asia. It has the second highest population in the world after China, which reached the 1 billion mark in June 2000. As per the latest census of 2001, the total population of the country is 1,027 million, which includes 531.28 million males and 495.73 million females. India’s share of the world population is 16.7 percent. The literacy rate among the population for seven years and above for the country stands at 65.38 percent. The corresponding figures for males and females are 75.85 and 54.16 percent respectively. The density of population (per km2) is 324 and the male=female ratio is 1000:933.