Introduction The European Union (EU) is strengthening its corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy in the framework of Europe’s contribution to the social dimension of globalization. This chapter analyses the origins and development of the EU’s approach within the context of the international discourse on corporate responsibility in relation to human rights and the environment. It focuses on the international dimension of the Union’s CSR strategy, considering some of the measures undertaken in recent years and options for the development of tools to make European companies accountable for their activities abroad. It considers, in particular, the impact that such development and the choices made by the EU when designing its strategy may have on its achievement of the wider goal of becoming a pole of excellence for CSR.