Too often buildings are seen as costly static containers rather than an investment which, if they are healthy and sustainable, can add value. Boyden (1971) distinguishes between needs for survival and those for well-being. Human beings have physiological, psychological and social needs. From Boyden (1971), Heerwagen (1998) pinpoints those well-being needs relevant to building design as:

• social milieu • freedom for solitary or group working • opportunities to develop self-expression • an interesting visual scene • acceptable acoustic conditions • contrast and random changes for the senses to react to • opportunities to exercise or switch over from work to other stimulating


to which one may add the need for clean fresh air. Stokols (1992) believes that physical, emotional and social conditions together are a requisite for good health. Buildings have a dynamic interaction with people and this the essence of this chapter.