One consistently emerging theme identiﬁed with organisational life in the last few decades is that of constant change. This trend will continue as we respond to transformation and upheaval to the social, economic and political framework of life in the new millennium. In addition to planned and predictable life-event changes, we also face uncertainty and insecurity as organisations adapt to meet new demands. It means that change to the nature of employment and the modiﬁcation of work structure and climate will endure. The rapid pace of change will continue, fuelled by technological innovation. Concern about the impact of such changes on productivity, performance and quality of life dominates thinking in a diverse range of disciplines. As Richard Hooker (1554-1600) said, ‘change is not made without inconvenience, even from worse to better’. The inference is that exposure to change is, in some way, costly to the individual, business and society.