The recent proliferation of AFNs in China is in part attributed to a civil society initiative—the “New Rural Reconstruction Movement” (NRRM). However, the ways in which the NRRM constructs and maintains its niche in China’s changing socio-political context, exemplified by the pro-modernization state and mounting food safety anxiety, are largely undocumented. This chapter examines the challenges and opportunities facing this movement from both state and society. It argues that the involvement of the NRRM in AFNs’ development exemplifies that AFNs function not only as a tool for transforming the food system but also as an accelerator for achieving broader rural development goals.