This introduction presents an overview of some key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of the book. This book demonstrates many of the ways in which bioeconomics is responding to address the issues by providing insights to innovative approaches that address emerging complex environmental and fisheries management issues, including novel ideas involving changes in fisheries management paradigms. Today's fishery managers face a far more complex set of issues than in the 1950s, when bioeconomics first emerged. Contemporary management issues are challenging bioeconomic analysts like never before. The book presents advancements in fisheries bioeconomics research to address some of these challenges. It discusses the distributional implications of subsidies in industrial and small-scale fisheries. Environmental concerns about the sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture globally have fuelled a demand, especially in developed countries, for seafood products that are certified as having come from sustainable sources.