This chapter explores the academic orthodoxy, which is built largely upon Daniel Hallin seminal study of US news media and the Vietnam War. It discusses claims about the inadequacy of war reporting and its propensity to reflect uncritically the policy goals of governments. The chapter focuses on contemporary accounts and debates, all of which have sought, in various ways, to explores the role of media as a more independent and active participant in policy making. It discusses debates over the CNN effect, the arrival of "global" news media and the Internet. The chapter describes a range of accounts are highlighted, all of which have sought to develop a more variable and nuanced understanding of the roles media can play during war. It examines several factors, including new technology, ideology and organized persuasion and contemporary propaganda that have challenged our understanding of the relationship between media, public opinion and war.