The preceding chapters clearly show that place-making and place-keeping of open space are socio-spatial processes (Madanipour, 1996) which involve the dimensions of policy, governance, partnerships, funding and finance, design and management, and evaluation. Each chapter has discussed in detail the issues and challenges faced within each of these dimensions, as well as identifying inter-linkages between these. As noted in Chapter 2, it is clear that as well as appropriate solutions required to meet the challenges within each dimension, successful place-keeping also demands a coordinated approach to these, which in turn requires a good understanding of their interconnections. Key questions that emerge in seeking such coordination are:

What approach or framework can we use to understand the interconnections between the dimensions of place-keeping?

What key insights on the interconnections between the dimensions of place-keeping can we gain from the experience presented in this book?

What ways forward to achieve better place-keeping — and therefore better open spaces — can be recommended on the basis of such insights?