This chapter is devoted to the history and the current state of the Russian system of preschool teacher preparation. Firstly, this chapter introduces the background of preschool education in Russia and its influence on teacher training preparation. Next, it focusses on the organisational framework and the content of future preschool teacher education at two levels (university and teacher training [vocational] college). This chapter also informs about the in-service preschool teacher system in Russia. Finally, it explains the modern trends, challenges and perspectives in the area of preschool teacher education.