ABSTRACT

Marine protected areas (MPAs) began to emerge as an important tool for the conservation of ocean species and ecosystems in the 1990s (Kelleher et al, 1995; Agardy, 1997, 2010; Hoyt, 2005, 2009a, 2011). As more has been learned about the habitat needs of marine species, it has become possible to use the place-based tool of MPAs to promote their conservation. The designation of MPAs borrows from well-established terrestrial conservation initiatives such as national parks, nature reserves and monuments which often encourage involvement by the public in conservation initiatives (Hoyt, 2011).