This chapter discusses the serious implications of the SDGs’ failure to recognize both urban food insecurity and the central roles women play in urban food systems. Uganda is an interesting case to study governance, urban food security, and women’s rights. Women in sub-Saharan Africa are marginalized in multiple ways and poor urban women are especially vulnerable in terms of rights access and securing entitlements to food. Entitlements and capabilities are central to this research because food access, rather than availability, is crucial to urban food security; precarious and restricted access undermines poor urban women’s ability to participate in and benefit from development. This approach helps shine a light on the specific development barriers to food security faced by low-income urban women. Within urban food systems, the poor rely most heavily on informal food markets, both for employment and consumption, and women comprise the majority of those who work and purchase from the informal food sector in Africa.