This chapter argues that the exclusion of minorities persists because states have little economic and political incentives to protect minorities and indigenous peoples. It suggests that tension arises when the objective of national economic development conflicts with the protection of indigenous people’s rights. The chapter focuses on the issues facing minorities across Africa, followed by a discussion of the concept of economic exclusion. It examines the two economic perspectives on economic exclusion, and the relevance of context in policy decisions. The chapter discusses the economic reasons why policymakers should commit to more inclusion, among them increases in welfare and economic growth. Originating in the United States, stratification economics literature was initially aimed at explaining the persistent white versus black inequalities by focusing on the nexus between discrimination, identity, and social stratification. The chapter discusses protections including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, color, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language, and birth.