The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) pose a call to action to all of humanity to end global poverty, and protect the planet while promoting shared prosperity and building peace. This chapter will explore some of the 17 SDGs, mainly health related, from a human rights framework and their relevance today and in the future. It will specifically focus on key areas of good health and well-being (SDG3), quality education (SDG4), gender equality (SDG5), decent work and economic growth (SDG8), reduced inequalities (SDG10), and climate action (SDG13) and specifically in terms of their implementation in Africa. The chapter focuses on the rights and duties of all people with an emphasis on our common humanity and the global commons. Despite the comprehensiveness of the consultation process, there was dissatisfaction among human rights advocates who felt the SDGs did not adequately reflect input from global leaders outside political spheres.