Although German troops never reached Central Asia, the Second World War had a powerful impact on the region on many levels, and even today shapes, amongst other factors, its economic geography and perception of history. This chapter will explain how Stalin reacted to Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and how the war and Stalin's response resulted in key changes in Central Asia, such as industrialisation and indigeni-sation, and even full control by the Soviet authorities. Furthermore, we shall also explain how the concept of ‘the Soviet citizen’, so important in understanding what the Soviet Union tried to do in Central Asia, emerged from the mobilisation against Germany. The chapter will conclude with an examination of the legacy of the Second World War in Central Asia, and the role it plays in the politics and international relations of the region.