Over the last 15 years, European countries have witnessed a growing number of hate crimes towards immigrants and minorities – including hate speech, physical attacks on and murders of people with a different skin-colour – or from ethnic and religious minorities such as Roma and Sinti or Muslims. As reported by the British ‘Islamic Human Rights Commission’ (IHRC), for instance, since 11 September 2001 there has been a rise in the number of physical attacks on Muslims (Allen 2010: 123-24).