This chapter begins with a brief review of various approaches to the study of ethnic identity, because they form the foundation for the research studies on the acculturation and enculturation processes of Arab Americans. In particular, the seminal works of John W. Berry, Jean Phinney, and their colleagues (e.g. Berry, Phinney, Sam, & Vedder, 2006) are discussed in light of research on the acculturation of Arab Americans to the U.S. Acculturation involves the variety of different ways that a person can adapt to a culture that is different from that of their family’s culture(s) of origin. Enculturation, on the other hand, involves learning about one’s culture of origin.