The training of soldiers, police officers, firemen, deep-sea divers, and athletes comprises just a few examples of the numerous instances where persons are trained to perform stressful tasks. In all these instances, the effectiveness of training is judged according to standards set in extremely stressful criterion situations (e.g., combat). These present problems and requirements that seldom exist when persons are trained to perform tasks that are not inherently stressful. Most notably, adequate training requires not only the acquisition of basic skills such as marksmanship, map reading, or pure oxygen breathing, but also the ability to cope with and withstand intense stressors.