This chapter examines the impacts of varieties of state-socialist economy on the country-specific patterns of inter-firm relations. The point of departure of our analysis is Mari Sako’s 1992 study of cultural influence on contractual relations, in which she describes diverging Japanese and British managerial strategies of dealing with inter-organizational transactions. We have a relatively narrow geographical focus, investigating differences between Poland, Hungary and Germany, but we will also study the impact on institutional developments of the state-socialist and welfare capitalist legacy. Country-specific varieties of the state-socialist system may add to the explanation of managerial strategies and the role of trust within them.