In quite a few countries throughout the world – Japan, Russia, Germany and Italy, for example – the national population is in decline. The decline is a demographic fact, ascertainable by social scientific methods. Is it a matter of concern? In Italy, at least, the Government of Silvio Berlusconi seemed to think so. That Government was concerned enough to have instituted a “baby bonus” in 2005, which is still in effect today. Is such concern appropriate or misplaced?