Sex is o en used to refer to biological diff erences between males and females, and gender is o en used to refer to learned behaviors and expectations. Yet, in truth, it is impossible to separate the biological and social infl uences on the development of cultural and self-perceptions of male and female roles and identity. Using separate terms for gender and sex sets up an arbitrary, unnecessary dichotomy between biological and environmental infl uences (Fausto-Sterling, 2000; Hoyenga and Hoyenga, 1993). Human beings are products of both biology and environment, past and present, simultaneously and inseparably. From conception to death, gender directs and infl uences how children are reared and what roles they learn and carry out.