Parents throughout the world are the fi rst and primary individuals entrusted with childcaring, the important task of rearing children to be culturally competent mature members of their respective society. From a parent’s point of view, a er reproduction, survival is achieved through protection of the infant and provision of food, but also through social and didactic processes that involve sharing information and inculcating culture (Wilson, 1975). All cultural groups foster particular characteristics that are deemed advantageous or essential to their members, and all cultural groups stint other characteristics as inappropriate or detrimental to adequate functioning within the group. Cross-cultural studies show that culture shapes parenting by providing models of childrearing that include which parenting cognitions and practices are acceptable, normative, or optimal vis-à-vis when and how to care for children and what traits in children are desirable and to be encouraged or undesirable and to be discouraged. Some demands on parents are culturally universal. For example, parents in all societies are expected to nurture and protect young children (Bornstein, 2002, 2006). Other demands vary greatly across cultural groups. For example, parents in some societies speak to babies and see them as interactive partners, whereas parents in other societies think that it is nonsensical to talk to infants before infants are capable of speech (Dixon, Keefer, Tronick, and Brazelton, 1982; Ochs, 1988; Richman, Miller, and LeVine, 1992). Some parenting practices are consistently associated with similar child outcomes. In a study of 11 countries, including at least one each from Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America, and South America, virtual unanimity was observed in the direction and signifi cance of associations of parental monitoring with less, and psychological control with more, adolescent antisocial behavior (Barber, Stolz, and Olsen, 2005). However, other parenting practices have diff erent eff ects on child outcomes depending on the specifi c cultural, and even intracultural, context. Parental supervision and consistency of discipline are negatively related to delinquency among European Americans but unrelated among Mexican Americans (Smith and Krohn, 1995), and corporal punishment is associated with externalizing problems in European American but not African American children (DeaterDeckard, Dodge, Bates, and Pettit, 1996).