DOI link for Russia
In pursuing this task, we fi rst acknowledge the limited information that exists. Before perestroika, few data on Russian child psychology or family studies were collected as a result of Soviet repression of the social sciences. Following the demise of the Soviet Union, opportunities to collect such data were, in theory, more readily available but severely limited by the chaotic state of Russian academia (Kerig, 1991, 1995). Accordingly, it will likely be some years before a defi nitive picture of Russian childhood emerges. Nonetheless, extant data are useful in assembling a broad outline, and this information is presented in three sections in this chapter. First, we examine the turmoil of the recent past and attempt to document current demographic trends that aff ect children and also refl ect, in part, current societal attitudes toward family and childrearing. Second, we consider the nature of the Russian family, past and present. We also present recent data documenting some of the ways in which Russian children are aff ected by family infl uence. Finally, we review extant research regarding the nature of Russian childhood across developmental periods (infancy/early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence/emerging adulthood). Particularly in adolescence, we focus on trends in social-psychological adjustment indices as well as the nature of the peer group, schooling, and other environmental contributors to development.