DOI link for Methodology
Research indicates that the adverse academic eff ects of authoritarian parenting found in Western countries may not be universal. Chao (1994; Bornstein and Lansford, Chapter 14, this volume; Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, and Darling, 1992) administered questionnaires of parental control and authoritative-authoritarian parenting style and Chinese child-rearing items involving the concept of “training” (hard work, self-discipline, and obedience) to Chinese American and European American mothers of preschool-aged children. e Chinese American mothers were found to score signifi cantly higher on authoritarian parenting style and training ideologies. In a second study by the same author, parenting styles and school performance of European American adolescents and fi rst-and second-generation Chinese Americans were compared. A positive association between authoritative parenting and school performance was found for the European Americans and, to a lesser extent, for second-generation Chinese Americans, but not for fi rst-generation Chinese Americans (Chao, 2001). Baumrind’s (1967) distinction among authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting may need conceptual elaboration if it is to be used in non-Western contexts.