This chapter highlights the need for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) to be used as a platform to lobby and secure tenure reform, pro-poor rights-based policies and spur social movements to capture resource rights at the local level. Intermediaries in the CBNRM sector may also need to participate in realigning institutional arrangements for resource management to ensure downward accountability and ensure rights to land and resources for local people. At the same time, there is a need to establish mechanisms for surveillance and lobbying state and local authority structures to ensure tenure and resource rights of the poor are maintained. As argued later in this chapter, land administration provides a challenge that needs to be transcended in order for resource rights and CBNRM governance reform to be enshrined in the beneficiation and governance processes. The chapter is organized as follows: this section provides some background

understanding to the land question, tenure and resource rights, and resource rights and governance in order to locate the interaction between land reform and CBNRM in southern Africa. This is followed by a discussion in section 4.2 that locates the status of CBNRM in the different countries under review before exploring the connections between land reform and CBNRM in section 4.3. Then section 4.4 discusses the policy and legal frameworks surrounding CBNRM in the region, while section 4.5 examines the issue of rights. The land reform constraints on CBNRM and challenges of land administration are discussed in section 4.6. Then section 4.7 presents thoughts on the role for CBNRM in land reform and section 4.8 poses some questions for thought and finally section 4.9 draws out some conclusions emerging from the discussion.