To provide the comparative and historical context for the case studies that follow, this chapter reviews past and current efforts at international cooperation. It proceeds in broadly three steps: (a) a discussion of voluntary migration and the reasons to expect increasing numbers of migrants; (b) a discussion of the international institutional and legal structures shaping (or not) the management of international migration; and (c) a review of new initiatives to foster greater international cooperation that hold the potential for moving global migration governance forward.