John Locke (1632–1704) is often taken as a canonical defender of the rights of parents in education, even as someone who carries the rights of parents too far in that sphere (Gutmann, 1987; Carrig, 2001). This is somewhat ironic given the fact that in his own day he was famous for limiting the rights of fathers as part of his rejection of the divine right of kings. In response to those who thought that Adam, by virtue of fatherhood, was monarch of the world and that his paternal sovereignty was passed on to his oldest heir, Locke argued that paternal power exists for a different purpose than political power and the power of parents over children is limited to the purpose of families, the proper care and raising of offspring (TT, 1.50–72, 2.52–76). 1 Nonetheless, it is true that Locke argued in favour of education at home by parents or tutors selected by parents, and it is also true that Locke talked about the education of children primarily as a right and duty of parents rather than of the state. This is a topic of no small importance now given the substantial number of children educated at home by parents and the frequent conflicts between parents and schools over policies and curricula. This chapter challenges the traditional reading of Locke’s view of education.