In A New Landscape for Languages (2003), Kelly and Jones presented how the language landscape might look in the United Kingdom in 2007. Using the most recent statistics, the report was revisited by Canning (2008) in Five Years On: The Language Landscape in 2007, in which the actual landscape was compared with the one that was envisaged seven years ago. Kelly (2008, p. iv) explained in the foreword that “languages remain vulnerable, despite being strategically important for the future of the country. But there are signs that government initiatives and the efforts of language educators are beginning to have an effect, at least in slowing the decline.”