Demographic factors, divorce and emotional labour Demographic factors have highlighted the issue of emotional labour as regards parenting responsibilities. Hochschild (2003a) notes that in most of the advanced industrial world the divorce rate has risen, and with it the number of single parent families. She notes that in America, the divorce rate has increased to 50 per cent and that one-fi fth of the households are headed by single mothers. She also notes that most of these single mothers get little fi nancial help from their ex-husbands and most work full-time outside the home.