Introduction Changes in population structure have been recorded worldwide. In particular, family size has been shrinking with the increasing numbers of women absorbed into the labour force (Caldwell and Caldwell 2005; Ogawa et al. 2005). Demographic trends in Asia have not shown any deviation (Haughton 1997; Hull 1994; Prachuabmoh and Mithranon 2003; Robey 1989; Yap 2002). The dual-income couple has become the norm rather than the exception owing to increasing levels of education among women and the need to engage in wage work as a state and domestic imperative. In spite of the changing demographic patterns, the organization of caring and parenting has undergone some but not significant transformation. The social injunction is that women are the primary caregivers and caretakers in the family, while men are perceived as the main breadwinners.