This book has aimed to explore a number of critical themes around the challenge of delivering a safe and secure Olympics in the context of the serious contemporary and ‘enduring’ international terrorist threat. The first section outlined the nature of this threat to the UK and what the potential threats might be to the 2012 Olympics in particular, though many of the insights will also apply to future events. The second section, beginning with a useful contextual discussion of risks in general to the Olympics, has discussed the key ‘responding’ themes of transport security, surveillance and designing stadia for safer events; and the final section has discussed the role of, and linkages between, institutions: including the challenge of achieving effective multi-agency coordination, the role of the private security industry and European perspectives on major event security. It has not been part of the remit of this volume (and the first section in particular) to outline what the causes of contemporary terrorism might be,1 nor has it sought to provide an overview as to what a robust and comprehensive counterterrorism strategy in general might look like. Rather, it has outlined the contemporary threat of terrorism and what the implications of this might be for the Olympics – with a particular eye on 2012 – as well as exploring some response themes that are especially pertinent to the Olympics. Nevertheless, in any discussion as to how to deliver a ‘safe and secure’ Games, some consideration as to how to mitigate the threat from terrorism more broadly is warranted. In the editors’ view, any response to terrorism must be informed by an understanding as to what has caused it in the first place. This may seem obvious, but it has been apparent from some of the more draconian proponents of the ‘war on terror’, or indeed from some of those who would deny the impact of Iraq and Afghanistan on international terrorist recruitment, that an understanding as to why terrorism takes place is not the priority. Rather, the emphasis for some is to ‘defeat the enemy’ or to ‘eliminate the terrorists’ wherever they may be, and whatever the longer-term consequences might be. The UK and other countries have both been introducing and considering some unprecedented technological solutions (and, indeed, this is an important part of counter-terrorism), but it should never take precedence over an honest appraisal as to what is motivating young males in particular into sacrificing themselves in the first place, or what it is that makes them more susceptible to terrorist recruitment.