Research has shown that for a number of children (i.e., 15%–20%), basic reading skills do not develop or improve with time (e.g., Fletcher & Foorman, 1994; Francis, Shaywitz, Stuebing, Shaywitz, & Fletcher, 1996). Children who fall behind in kindergarten and grade 1 fall further behind over time in reading and related areas (e.g., Lyon, 1995; Stanovich, 1986).