Given that socio-cultural and institutional factors strongly determine the relevance of management systems for a specific context (see, e.g., Budhwar and Sparrow, 1998; 2002a), this chapter aims to present and discuss the scenario related to the socio-cultural, political and institutional context of India. In this chapter, we discuss and analyse historical developments in India, its political and legal structures, its societal values, along with corporate culture and management behaviour. Finally, based on our analyses, we present key issues, which we believe will prove very useful for decision makers.