This chapter analyses time use surveys carried out in Japan, focussing on how people distribute their time between work and care. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications has carried out the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (Shakai Seikatsu Kihon Chōsa) every fi ve years from 1976. Using this time survey, we fi rstly analyse how people spend their time on paid and unpaid work by sex, age, household type, work status and household income. Secondly, we examine how the amount of time Japanese women and men spent in child and elderly care changed between 1991 and 2006. Furthermore, we discuss how these changes may have been infl uenced by childcare and elderly care policy in this period.