New social development (NSD) is conceptualized as a postmaterial process of human-societal transformation that seeks to build identities of people, communities and nations. As a fi eld and strategy of social reconstruction, it employs different models and modalities of social practice that suit varied situational-ideological imperatives in a given environment. By and large, two models characterized by centralized and decentralized location of power represent only the ends of a spectrum within the developmental process. This chapter is a critique of this duality and an exploration of new horizons suggesting a possible third way. An argument is made to rethink top-down and bottom-up models of development in light of new realities of the “post-American world.” Postulates of a theory of NSD are proffered for further exploration, discussion and debate.