Experimentation, reflection and learning are inherent aspects of design. A design process carried out by an experienced and reflective design-practitioner can be characterized as ‘reflection-in-action’ (Schön 1983), where:

The practitioner allows himself to experience surprise, puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of the phenomenon and a change in the situation

(ibid., p. 68)

In this chapter we apply Schön’s reflection-in-action to participatory design and implementation of information systems in an organizational context. The traditional iterative prototyping approach is reconstructed into a process model that (1) emphasizes experimenting by evaluating fully integrated information systems as appropriated into real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change;

and (3) extends initial design and development into a change process driven by sustained participatory design. The model outlines a process that enables mutual learning, including collective reflection-in-action, through the use of information systems in real work practices.