The development of science in modern Spanish America can be divided into two moments-before Darwinism and after Darwinism. In the days following the early Independence movements that began in 1810, science was viewed as an essential element in the fi ght against Spanish colonialism.1 The introduction of scientifi c ideas owes a great deal to the travel narratives and scientifi c expeditions that were read as both science and literature. In fact, the Romantic generation that emerged around the 1830s, particularly in Argentina, claimed the unity of both science and humanities under a sensibility that allowed an observer to approach nature with the objective description of the scientist and the emotional narrative of a literary person.