Introduction Important parts of agricultural production in Uzbekistan are still under strong state control. Cotton production plays a central role in this (Wall 2006; Trevisani 2008; Veldwisch 2008a; Veldwisch and Spoor, 2008). The subject of this chapter is the effect of state control on water distribution processes at the district level (rayon/tuman), i.e. the interactions between state organizations, the newly established Water Users’ Associations (WUAs), and farmers.2 This chapter shows that Khorezm Province has an authoritarian, top-down system of irrigation management. The system is deployed to strengthen the state’s control over agricultural production, especially that of state-ordered cotton. It is also used to ensure that household production and commercially produced rice, the two other forms of production, are satisfactorily supplied with water. The three different forms of production each have their own feedback loops that inform the water managers about water demands at field level. A situation of relative water abundance, combined with strict state control over cropping patterns allows water distribution to largely follow the demand signals. The next section of this chapter argues that both the physical and the administrative infrastructures are well-functioning systems that make it possible to control water flows effectively. In the third section the water requirements of current agricultural production patterns are analysed and compared with the water availability from the Amu Darya. It is concluded that there is a situation of relative water abundance in Khorezm. In the fourth section, the arrangements for water allocation and scheduling of irrigation are discussed as well as how the system responds to day-to-day demands from field level.3