The planful use of activity and program are among the unique contributions of social group work to the social work profession and to the development of group work theory (Kurland & Salmon, 1998). Historically, its wide range of purposes influenced group work, particularly a focus on enjoyment, enhancing quality of life through cultural activities, and problem solving (Boyd, 1938; Schwartz, 1985; Toseland & Rivas, 2005). The history of program activity is rooted in recreation and education (Coyle, 1947).