An important advance in our understanding of the neural bases of human memory was provided by Tulving and colleagues who proposed the hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry (HERA) model of episodic memory (Tulving, Kapur, Craik, Moscovitch, & Houle, 1994). The HERA model argues that the left versus right cerebral hemispheres are specialized for the encoding versus retrieval, respectively, of episodic memories (in contrast, both the encoding and retrieval of semantic memories are handled by the left hemisphere only). Subsequent brain imaging studies have provided further support for the HERA model (e.g., Habib, Nyberg, & Tulving, 2003).