Research on applied memory is one of the most active, interesting and vibrant areas in cognitive psychology today. Findings from the best applied research enhance not just practice but also theoretical knowledge of how memory functions, highlighting the strengths and shortcomings of this vital faculty. Memory is central to everyday cognition; it allows us to use past experience to interpret the seemingly chaotic perceptual world of the present and to plan for the future, enabling us to pass fluidly and seamlessly through our busy environment. Why, then, is so much research on practical aspects of memory of recent vintage? The answer lies in the history of psychology on the two sides of the Atlantic.